Image source: https://pt.pinterest.com/
With more than 800 years of history, Portugal is one of the oldest countries in the world. Throughout the centuries, several traditions and cultural traits were established, defining today the Portuguese society and its country in most different areas.
From gastronomy to wine, arts and crafts to music, popular festivals and pilgrimages, there are several reasons for you to visit this wonderful country.
Because Portugal is not only landscape nor monuments, discover its culture and traditions – there is much more to see!
Portugal has been for a long time a country with a huge culinary tradition. One of the first foods that stood out in the Portuguese gastronomic panorama was the cod.
From the Age of Discovery, particularly in the 15th and 16th centuries, the Portuguese spent a lot of time in the sea and, as such, had no access to fresh food.
The codfish came as a solution to this problem since this fish last longer when preserved in salt. As part of the population didn’t have much money to buy fresh fish, cod began to make its way in the Portuguese gastronomy and it is, today, one of the favourite foods of the Portuguese.
To be honest, there are a thousand ways to cook cod: boiled cod, with cream, roast, with cornbread, Gomes de Sá, etc.
But it’s not just the cod that marks the culinary culture in Portugal. There are other delightful specialties that amaze the Portuguese and will win over the visitors from other countries.
Look at the case of sardines (mostly, during the festivals), the Francesinha or Frenchie (considered as one of the best sandwiches in the world) and the pastel de nata, a Portuguese egg tart pastry.
The pastel de nata is also very appreciated by the tourists visiting the country but what a lot of people don’t know is that when it started to be sold, in 1837, its goal was to save the Hieronymites Monastery.
till in the Portuguese gastronomy, I need to highlight the richness of wines, recognized worldwide and award-winning in several categories.
No doubt the most well-known Portuguese wine is the Port Wine. This wine is produced in farms in the Douro Wine Region (the first wine region to be recognized in the world) and stored in the cellars, in Vila Nova de Gaia.
From here, the wine is transported to all over the country and also exported to all over the world. What separates the Port wine from other wines is the fact that this wine is sweeter and, at the same time, has higher alcohol content.
The Portuguese tradition is also very marked by the music. One of the most characteristic musical genres in Portugal, and unique at a global level, it’s Fado.
This musical genre started to stand out in Portugal in the mid-nineteenth century but it was only during the decades of 30 and 40 of the next century that it won projection, by means of dissemination such as the cinema, the theatre and the radio.
There are several aspects that mark this musical genre like the melancholy, the longing, the fate and destiny; about the fado singer, he has a unique way of dressing and sings like no other singer from other genres.
Among the most well known singers in Portugal, people can hear Carlos do Carmo, Mariza, Ana Moura and the one and only Amália Rodrigues, who launched fado to a worldwide audience in 1943.
It should be noted that fado was considered by UNESCO as Immaterial Heritage. If you want to discover this musical genre so typical in the Portuguese tradition, nothing better than to visit one of the many existing fado houses especially in Lisbon, but also in Coimbra and Porto.
But not only of fado lives the Portuguese music scene. Another music genre very characteristic of this country is the folk music, present in a lot of festivals in Portugal – the most popular styles are the bailinho da Madeira, malhão and vira.
These music and dance styles are very typical of rural areas, both from the mainland and from the islands and are one an excuse for people to gather and have fun.
Another area that has emerged in the Portuguese cultural landscape over the course of time was arts and crafts. Especially from the 17th century, arts and crafts started gaining relevance at a national level with special relevance in areas such as ceramics, tapestry, embroidery, jewelry, among others.
When it comes to ceramics, no one can be indifferent to the presence of one of the most well-known symbols of Portugal – the rooster of Barcelos. This rooster is typically made in clay and, despite having origin and greatest relevance in the north of the country, it’s a national icon also known in other countries as a Portuguese symbol.
The glazed tile is also very common in the Portuguese tradition and its production has more than five centuries of history. We can see a magnificent example of this type of ceramics especially in churches, old train stations and in many homes.
The Portuguese tradition in tapestry came in the 18th century and it is used since then for decoration of walls and murals. Themes such as the deeds of the Portuguese, religion and others are depicted in carpets.
In a national and international level, the most well-known carpets are without a doubt the Arraiolos carpets. They have emerged in Alentejo, in the village of Arraiolos (hence the name) but they are already produced all over the country.
These carpets are characterized by being embroidered in wool on a linen or cotton canvas with Arraiolos stitch, unique in the world.
Another form of arts and crafts very typical in the Portuguese tradition is without a doubt the lace. This textile art has sprung up in Portugal and also throughout Europe between the end of the 15th century and the beginning of the 16th century, during the Renaissance period.
The kinds of lace better known in Portugal is the Vila do Conde lace and Peniche lace. This type is very characteristic of Portuguese coastal areas and it requires hard work, dedication and patience. If you want to know more about the embroidery crafts, nothing better than to visit the museum of embroidery crafts in Vila do Conde.
We cannot fail to mention the typical skirts of Nazaré, in the centre of Portugal and the Valentine’s handkerchiefs, more characteristic of the north of the country. These scarves were mainly embroidered by women as a way to spend their time; women made these handkerchiefs to use them as an ornament but also to conquer their boyfriends.
Finally, one of the areas with special emphasis on the Portuguese arts and crafts is the jewellery, in particular the filigree. Filigree is an ornamental work of fine (especially the gold and silver) wire formed into delicate tracery, demanding their artisans much dedication; the largest production centres in Portugal are Gondomar, in Porto, and Póvoa de Lanhoso, in Braga.
Among other pieces of Portuguese filigree, we have the hearts of Viana, crucifixes and earrings. These pieces are a decorative element to enrich traditional costumes in festivals, especially in the north of the country.
The festivals and pilgrimages are other aspects most present in the Portuguese tradition and they come hand in hand with some areas mentioned above, as the gastronomy and music.
Parties like Santo António, São Pedro and São João and the pilgrimage to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima, among others, move millions of Portuguese and foreign tourists through the streets of big cities and villages of Portugal in party or in devotion.
We can consider that the Santo António, in Lisbon, is the first of the biggest festivals happening in the country. The party is celebrated in the week of 13 June and joins thousands of people on the streets to admire and be part of the popular marches, typical of this time of the year.
During these festivities it is tradition to adorn homes with basil plants, eat grilled sardines and cornbread. Another tradition is the marriages of Santo António, because this saint is considered to be the matchmaker saint and young boys and girls ask him for help to find their soul mates.
As Santo António in Lisbon, also in Porto and in Braga the São João brings together thousands of people and fun, being the highest point the night of 23 to 24 June. In Porto people gather mostly in the historic centre and eat grilled sardines and corn bread and caldo verde (literally green broth).
After dinner, people go to the Avenida dos Aliados or to Ribeira and prepare themselves for the fireworks. It’s also tradition at this festival for everyone to walk with plastic hammers or leek and beat (gently) in the heads of those passing by. In addition to the hammer, it’s also tradition to launch hot air paper balloons that will colour the skies of Porto and surrounding cities.
These are two of the largest Portuguese festivals, but there are many others that fill the calendar, spanning from north to south.
Also the pilgrimages to the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima move a lot of people. The main dates are without a doubt the 13th of May, date that celebrates the first apparition of Our Lady to three shepherds, in the village of Fátima in 1917; the other important date is the 13th of October that celebrates the last apparition of Our Lady, in which she has requested for a chapel to be built in her honour.
As you can see, in addition to all the natural beauty and all the monuments that exist in Portugal, this country has much more to offer: it’s the warm and welcoming people, their customs and their traditions that also make this country one of the most beautiful in Europe and in the world.
If you don’t want to visit Portugal only because of its beaches and monuments, visit it also because of its food, arts crafts and festivals – you won’t regret it!